世界公民

 “I was 'going portfolio' I would say, proudly using the term I had coined a couple of years earlier to describe the kind of life that, I predicted, more and more people would be leading by the end of the century.”-Charles Handy

 究竟人是為了生活而工作,還是為了工作而生活?工作保障與精神自由是否必然衝突?現代職人的歸屬感、夢想與學習,應該從哪裡尋得?應該進入大公司有制度地學習,還是到小公司無侷限地發揮?

 查爾斯韓第(Charles Handy)是世界知名的組織管理大師(management thinker),但稱他為「商業哲學家」(business philosopher)更名副其實,因為他經常從人生的角度出發,來解決當今組織所面臨的問題,許多出自他筆下的新名詞,如:「組合式生活」(portfolio life)、「酢漿草組織」(shamrock organization)、「S曲線」(sigmoid curve)、「跳蚤工作者」(the flea)等,都帶給商業界莫大的影響。他預言,二十一世紀的每個人,都會經歷成為「跳蚤」的轉變,為了擁有一個充實豐富的人生,而努力朝向「組合式生活」邁進。

 所謂的「跳蚤」,指的是自由獨立的工作者,他們有的擁有自己的小企業,有的是個體戶,有的則與人合夥;相對的,二十世紀雇員社會的基石-大型組織則被韓第比喻為笨重遲緩的「大象」。過去的社會,由大型組織提供就業機會,人人都在穩定的固定所得和專業分工中各安其位,但韓第認為這種情況已經改變。

 "It is the elephants who get all the attention while most people actually work as a flea or for a flea organization. There are, as one example, more people working in ethnic restaurants in Britain today than in the steel, coal, shipbuilding and automobile companies put together. Those huge elephants of old have been surpassed by flea organizations as the economy moves from manufacturing to services. It is a new world."

 過去韓第就像大多數人一樣為「大象組織」工作,過著有工作保障的人生。一直到他49歲時,才決定成為一個自由工作者,開始經歷「跳蚤」生涯。韓第體會到,在現在及未來這個更彈性的世界中,每個人都必定會經歷成為「跳蚤」的轉變。

 "If you look at our lives, there's no way we're going to spend most of our lives inside big organizations any more. Partly because we're living longer. We're healthier. And partly its' because careers are getting shorter. And we've got to fill those years with something, and something that brings in money, because there won't be enough pension anywhere to look after us in the longer term."

 "It was also clear that any attempts by the big organizations to do everything themselves was becoming too expensive and too complicated. Once again, the centre was learning the need to relinquish some operational control. Companies called it out-sourcing or downsizing, and relished the cost-savings that followed. But I was promoting something different, what I called the Shamrock Organization(酢漿草組織)- an organization with three integrated leaves made up of the central core(核心工作團隊), the contractual fringe(約聘人員)and the ancillary workforce(彈性勞工), a concept that I argued was the way to incorporate a necessary flexibility within a corporate whole."

 "In fact, since the wealth of organizations will be vested in individuals and what they carry in their heads, even the elephants may come to be seen as communities of individual fleas - a healthy change from seeing organizations as collections of human resources, owned by the shareholders."

 當然,轉變的過程中難免伴隨著許多不適與問題,讓我們不斷在現實中掙扎、與夢想相互拉扯。

 "The career in an organization, even if it changed once or twice in a lifetime, seemed to be the central bond that kept society from degenerating into a selfish battleground, each for himself and herself and devil take the rest. The very different world I foresaw, however, was fraught with insecurity for most, with uncertainty and fear."

 "Indeed it took me some time to be proud of the fact that at conferences and the like I had no institutional affiliation attached to my name. It felt naked." "I have discovered rather late in life that I needed to be true to myself if I was going to work by myself, to be a flea. It was no use pretending to be someone or something else."

 但是韓第知道,所有的努力都是值得的,因為「跳蚤」生涯可以引領我們走向「組合式生活」。所謂「組合式生活」,是由有薪資工作、家庭工作、義工工作和學習工作組合而成,再點綴著休閒及玩樂,以達到工作與生活的均衡。"We would need, I said, a portfolio of different bits and pieces of paid work, or a collection of different clients or customers, if we wanted to earn a living. A full and rich life, however, would be a more complicated portfolio of different categories of work - paid work, gift work, study work or learning, plus, for both men and women, the necessary work in the home, cooking, caring and cleaning. The elusive work/life balance would actually be a mixture of different forms of work, seasoned with a touch of leisure and pleasure."

 韓第自己如何「going portfolio」?他把一年365天分配成:賺取收入150天、學習研究100天、家庭工作與休閒90天、義工25天。這種「組合式生活」就像作物輪種般有變化的樂趣。

 韓第相信,「going portfolio」的觀念一定會逐漸打入組織內部。為了留住並吸引人才,組織也必須允許部分關鍵人才,發展他們自己的工作組合。他樂觀地預言,在下一個世代,工作組合將達成個人自由與企業效率間的雙贏。

 也許你會反對韓第的預言,不過相信韓第會拿悲觀哲學大師叔本華(Arthur Schopenhauer)的名言回應你:「All truth passes through three stages. First it is ridiculed. Second it is opposed. Third it is accepted as being self-evident.」(所有真理都會經過3個階段:人們先是加以嘲弄,再來便是反對,最後才會接受它是不證自明的。)

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