• Debug專欄

     找出英文錯誤,像擦掉眼鏡上的一層霧水! \n 現在,就讓我們來猜猜看,下面以紅色標出的片語各是什麼意思? \n 1. \n A: Djokovic just defeated Nadal and won the Wimbledon champion! \n B: Wow. He's absolutely in top form today. \n □ 非常開心。 \n □ 狀態正佳。 \n □ 受廣告商青睞。 \n 2. \n A: We're going to see Harry Potter this Saturday, wanna join? \n B: Sorry, I can't. I have to hit the books. \n □ 認真唸書。 \n □ 去書店找書。 \n □ 在媒體上打書。 \n 3. \n A: I think I am going bonkers. \n B: What's wrong? \n □ 發瘋了。 \n □ 太累了。 \n □ 發財了。 \n 4. \n I'm so cheesed off by their attitude. They told me the goods will arrive by this Monday, but it's already Friday. And they never pick up the phone! \n □ 傷心。 \n □ 不高興。 \n □ 丟臉。 \n Debugged \n 1. in top form 最佳狀態 \n 這個片語除了可以說人的「身體狀況良好」,也可以用來表達「機智反應力處於很好的狀態」。像是候選人在電視上進行政見發表與辯論,如果他對答如流,還能反擊對手,你就可以說:The candidate was in top form today and outwitted his opponents. \n 2. hit the books 認真唸書 \n 如果你只會用study這個字,那hit the books一定要學起來。這表達有種「要和書對戰了」的感覺,不是只有study,而是study very hard。 \n 3. go bonkers 瘋了 \n Bonkers或者說go bonkers,是美國人愛用的俚語,意瘋狂,go crazy,go mad或lose your mind都是相同的意思。 \n 4. cheesed off不高興,惱怒 \n 在照相的時候,我們都會要大家「say cheese」,表情才會處於開心的狀態。那如果這個表情被關閉了(off),想當然耳,就是處在「不高興、惱怒」的情緒。

  • Debug專欄

     找出英文錯誤,像擦掉眼鏡上的一層霧水! \n 1. She studied English language very well. 她英文學得很好。 \n 2. The coffee isn't enough. 咖啡不夠了。 \n 3. The entrance of the cinema is on your right. 戲院大門在你右邊。 \n 4. We take part in an exam. 我們參加一場考試。 \n 5. I exercise spoken English in the morning. 我每天早上練習英文口語。 \n 6. I guarantee paying off his debt. 我保證清償他的債務。 \n 7. The event was postponed due to rain. 活動因雨延期。 \n Debugged \n 1. She studied the English language very well.或She studied English very well. \n 在泛指某一種學科時,不應加冠詞,如:I like history.但如特指某一門學科時則應加冠詞,如:He likes the history of America. \n 2. There isn't enough coffee. \n 當主詞是代名詞時,Enough可以作be動詞的補語,例如:That's enough.或It was enough.但其主詞應是名詞時,就應換用上面的句型。 \n 3. The entrance to the cinema is on your right. \n 在表示通往某處時entrance後面多用to作介詞。這樣的用法還有key to the door, answer to the question等。 \n 4. We take an exam. \n take part in為「參加」某種活動、運動,而在學科中選擇某一學科學習並進行考試應用take. \n 5. I practice spoken English in the morning. \n exercise多指運動、訓練,而practice則多指把理論付諸於實踐的練習。 \n 6. I guarantee to pay off his debt. I guarantee (that) I will pay off his debt. \n 動詞guarantee(保證)後不接動名詞,而接不定詞,也可以接that子句。 \n 7. The event was postponed because of rain.或The event's postponement was due to rain. \n 很多人以為「because of」和「due to」可以代換,其實並不然。這和這兩組詞的發展有關,「because of」基本上是副詞,是形容動作postponed,而「due to」是形容詞,形容postponement。再看一個例子: \n His defeat was due to the lottery issue. \n He was defeated because of the lottery issue.

  • 給你一對英語的翅膀

     【哈佛商業評論Club】 \n Interactive case study 徵求會說3分鐘英文的CEO \n 一個頂級專業經理人每年需要精研的case,其實不過是20個,但是難的是開始的第1年,為自己找到切入個案精髓,在個案與個案的連結中洞悉世界商業運作的奧妙。第一年走順了,方法和目的逐漸熟悉,養成世界經理人看商業世界的習慣,很快就可以攀登世界經理人的頂峰。 \n 哈佛商業評論Interactive case study,要求參與者起碼具備能夠閱讀商業報告,並能用英文介紹自己的生涯規畫。40周高互動的課堂訓練將讓你學會用英文侃侃而談、唇槍舌劍,英文簡報、會議從心所欲,更不可思議的,你的people skills、business insight也跟著好了起來。祕訣沒有別的,跟最好的老師、同學讀最精準的教材。 \n Interactive case study5月14日開課,只限12名有管理經驗的高階經理人,曾留學國外者優先錄取,參與者的英文程度如果無法加入討論,世界公民文化中心將提供一對一個別輔導,直到可以加入討論為止。報名甄選請上網登記www.core-corner.com,或電話索取簡章:(02)2721-5033。 \n 世界公民Weekly \n 由世界公民文化中心提供

  • 來一場大腦大掃除!


     If you struggle to remember names and numbers or frequently fail to follow the plot of a film, help could be at hand. \n Scientists say the problem is that you know too much - and you need to declutter, or spring-clean your mind. \n Experiments show that the memory lapses that come with age are not simply due to brain slowing down. Instead, they can be blamed on the well-used brain finding it more and more difficult to stop irrelevant information interfering with the task in hand. \n 如果你覺得自己記不住人名和數字,或者電影看著看著就忘了前面的故事情節,這篇文章幫得上忙。 \n 科學家說記不住是因為你記太多東西。你的大腦應該進行一次大掃除,刪除多餘的記憶。 \n 年紀大的人記憶力差並不是因為腦子不夠用,恰恰相反,正是因為他們頭腦運轉靈活,處理手頭工作時,不相干的記憶會不停地冒出來干擾。 \n The first step in the study was to compare the working memory of the young and old.In the context of the study, it involved giving the volunteers groups of sentences and asking them to work out whether each line made sense - and to remember the last word of each sentence. \n Overall, the younger people, who had an average age of 23, did better. \n 第1項實驗是比較年輕人和老年人的短期記憶力。實驗是給實驗的對象一組句子,讓他們判斷這些句子是否有意義,看看他們能否記住每句話的最後一個單字。 \n 結果平均年齡23歲的年輕人勝出。 \n Researchers then did a second experiment to see what was hindering the older volunteers, who had an average age of 67. This involved being shown pictures of eight animals and being asked to memorize the order in which the creatures appeared. \n The volunteers were then shown dozens of the pictures and asked to click on their computer mouse when the first animal in their memorized sequence occurred, then the second and so on. The older adults found it more difficult to progress, suggesting the previous picture was stuck in their mind. \n 研究人員又做了第2項實驗,目的在於找到影響這群平均年齡為67歲的老年實驗對象的原因。這項實驗讓他們看8幅動物圖片,並記住圖片出現的先後順序。 \n 實驗結束後,研究人員要求這些老年人根據自己的記憶在電腦螢幕上依圖片出現順序點擊動物圖片。這些老年人表示這個實驗很難,因為上一幅圖片在他們腦子裡揮之不去。 \n Mervin Blair, of Montreal's Concordia University, said: "We found that the older adults had more difficulty in getting rid of previous information, which accounted for a lot of the working memory problems seen in the study." \n A third study confirmed that the memory problems were not simply due to a simple slowing down of the mind. \n 蒙特羅協和大學的馬文布萊爾說:「我們發現,老年人忘不掉過去的事情,導致短期記憶障礙。」 \n 第3項實驗證明老人記不住東西並非因為思維速度減緩。 \n Mr Blair, a PhD candidate, says that the older mind appears to have trouble suppressing irrelevant information. This makes it more difficult to concentrate on the here and now. For those who have trouble remembering, he suggests relaxation exercises to declutter the mind. \n "Reduce clutter, if you don't, you may not get anything done." \n Keeping the mind young, through learning a language or musical instrument can also help. \n 布萊爾這位博士候選人說,老年人似乎很難排除不相關的資訊,因此他們無法集中精神處理眼前工作。他建議那些記不住東西的人放鬆身心,忘掉那些不重要的事情。 \n 他說道:「忘掉不重要的記憶,才能做好眼前的事情。」 \n 讓大腦一直處於年輕狀態,學語言或樂器都是好方法。

  • 抱歉!對右耳說更有效

     Apologies go down better through right ear, study finds. \n Case 1: \n Saying sorry isn't always enough to earn forgiveness but you have more chance of getting your message across if you speak into someone's right ear, research indicates. \n Scientists found that when we are angry, the right ear becomes more receptive to sound than the left. \n 一聲「對不起」不一定就能得到諒解,但根據一項最新研究,如果這聲「對不起」是對著對方的右耳說,他會更容易「聽進去」。 \n 科學家發現,人生氣時,右耳變得比左耳更敏銳。 \n The discovery has led to the theory that by targeting the right ear, the penitent are more likely to succeed in talking someone round. \n Researchers came to the conclusion after carrying out hearing tests on 30 young men who had been worked up into a fury. \n 根據這一發現,研究人員提出,對著對方的右耳說對不起更容易獲得對方的原諒。 \n 研究人員在對30名年輕男性進行聽力測試後得出了這一結論:這些男性在測試中都被激怒。 \n The participants were given a folder of hostile statements to read to anger them, while scientists observed their heart rate, blood pressure and testosterone levels rise. \n The research team from the University of Valencia found that when angry, the participants' right ears were significantly more susceptible to sound. However, there was no change in the left ear, according to the research. \n 研究團隊讓研究對象閱讀了一些挑釁性的言論以激怒他們,同時發現,研究對象的心跳、血壓和荷爾蒙都有所上升。 \n 瓦倫西亞大學的研究小組發現,在生氣時,研究對象的右耳會對聲音變得格外敏感。 \n 而左耳對聲音的敏感度卻沒有明顯變化。 \n Case 2,再來看看一項義大利科學家的研究: \n You're in a loud and sweaty Italian dance club when a woman approaches you. To be heard over the techno, she leans in close and yells into your ear, "Hi una sigaretta?" \n 想像你身處一個嘈雜的、汗水淋漓的舞廳,一名女士向你走了過來。你想要從震耳欲聾的電子搖滾樂中聽到她的話,只見她湊過身對你大喊:能給我根菸嗎? \n If she spoke into your right ear, you would be twice as likely to give her a cigarette than if she asked by your left ear, according to a new study that employed this methodology in the clubs of Pescara, Italy. Of 88 clubbers who were approached on the right, 34 let the researcher bum a smoke, compared with 17 of 88 whom she approached on the left. \n 研究人員在義大利佩斯卡拉的俱樂部調查後得到結論:她朝你的右耳喊,那麼你給她香菸的幾率是她朝你左耳喊的機率的2倍。在88個朝右耳喊的人中,有34個給研究人員遞了根煙;而在88個朝左耳喊的人中,只有17個這麼做。 \n It's the latest in a series of studies that show that sound from both human ears is processed differently within the brain. Researchers have noted that humans tend to have a preference for listening to verbal input with their right ears and that given stimulus in both ears, they'll privilege the syllables that went into the right ear. Brain scientists hypothesize that the right ear auditory stream receives precedence in the left hemisphere of the brain, where the bulk of linguistic processing is carried out. \n 最新的一系列研究指出,從人類的左右耳傳入的聲音在大腦中處理程序不同。研究人員發現,多數人喜歡用右耳進行語言輸入,並且如果給予兩邊同等刺激,右耳所聽到的音節在大腦中往往佔優勢。腦科學家繼而提出假設:右耳的聽覺系統優先進入左半腦,而左半腦是處理大量語言的地方。 \n In addition to the direct cigarette-ask study, the research team also simply observed people interacting and also asked for cigarettes without directing their requests towards a particular ear. They picked the night club setting because the loud music allowed the cigarette-asker to approach people and speak directly into one ear without seeming "odd." \n 除了直接的以問別人要菸的方式研究,研究團隊也單純觀察人們的互動行為,比方說問別人要根菸,但不向特定某個耳朵說話。研究人員先前挑選了夜總會的環境,是因為吵鬧的音樂聲能夠讓要菸的人接近對方,直接對某一隻耳朵說話,而不會讓對方感到奇怪。 \n Window 1001 是世界公民文化中心為金融、科技、貿易、管理等專業人才而打造的線上九宮格英語學習平台。每天只要7分鐘,堅持3個月,就能讓一個「英文只夠用來自我介紹」的上班族,進步到讀得懂Business Week、New York Times;持續9個月,聽得懂CNN、BBC的商業新聞。註冊或試讀請上網http://www.window1001.com。

  • Debug專欄

     找出英文錯誤,像擦掉眼鏡上的一層霧水! \n 1. He works for a foreigner company. \n 他在外商工作。 \n 2. I'm sorry about you. \n 對於你的事我深感遺憾。 \n 3. I want to make a claim. \n 我想要投訴。 \n 4. He's my junior. \n 他是我的下屬。 \n 5. He is in good condition. \n 他情況良好。 \n 6. I write a memo when I study. \n 我閱讀時候會記筆記。 \n 7. It's very local. \n Debugged \n 1. He works for a foreign company. \n 說外國人就用foreign people,外國公司就用foreign company。不必再用foreigner company。 \n 2. I'm sorry to hear that. \n Be sorry有對不起,抱歉的意思,也有對……感到遺憾的意思。自己的行為給別人帶來麻煩的時候,用I'm sorry for[about]+事情,表示對自己做過的事表示抱歉。I'm sorry to hear that.是指表示對聽到的事感到遺憾。 \n 3. I want to complain. \n 投訴不能講成claim,因為claim表示請求、主張,而沒有意見、要求和反對意見的意思。要用英語表達意見、要求、抱怨或投訴時用complain。除此之外,投訴還可以表達為file(make)a complaint. \n 4. He works under (for) me. \n Junior是年輕人,比自己晚工作、晚入學的人的意思,一般沒有下屬的意思。Junior用於工作中時與職位高低無關,只表示某人比某人晚進公司幾年,也可表達為I started working here three years before he did.(我比他來這公司早3年。)而He works under (for)me.有他是我的下屬的意思。指下屬不能用junior. \n 5. He is in good shape. \n Be in good condition通常是指機器等狀態良好。人的身體狀態好要說be in good shape.只有少數例外,運動員為了獲勝把自己看作機器時也用That pitcher is in good condition.(那個投手身體狀況很好。)一般身體狀況不用condition。 \n 6. I take notes when I study. \n Memo是指(公司裡)為別人寫的、有聯絡事項的備忘錄。而note是指為了不忘記比較重要的東西而寫下的筆記。在例句中,表示為了不忘記學習的重點而寫的,使用note是正確的。 \n Memo是為聯絡寫的東西,note是書寫的記錄、摘要。 \n 7. It's very remote. \n Local是地方的意思,例如,a local bank是本土銀行的意思。Remote是遠離都市的意思。 \n 「SWOT Analyze」你英文程度,Free! \n 學英文,你大概走過不少冤枉路。假如還在一個個單字背、一個個句型重覆,這些過時學習方式,註定讓你英文這條路冤枉一生! \n 商場上的幹練、做人實實在在、記得住上百客戶的名字、idea多聯想力強、越挫越勇的性格、超好people skills……怎樣把它變成學英文最大的優勢? \n 世界公民文化中心從SWOT Analysis開始,到所有你熟悉的商業溝通型式:meeting、presentation、negotiation、conference call、case study、feasibility study……都是1on1教學刺激你表達、重新用英文認識新世界的利器。 \n 填好問卷,就來參加第一個小時Free的English SWOT Analysis。限20名金融、高科技、服務業,最有機會成為世界公民的專業經理人!For more information,請打電話:02-27215033(台北)、03-5721099(新竹)。或上網www.core-corner.com。

  • 世界公民-美國人對節約能源沒概念

     Americans in the dark about energy use \n Americans aren't known for their energy-thrift ways. Maybe that's because they have little idea as to how much energy things use. While people are generally able to rank items according to energy use - i.e. the dryer uses more than the toaster - they are way off the mark when it comes to gauging by just how much, according to a recent study from researchers at Columbia University and elsewhere. \n 說到節能,美國人還差得遠,因為他們對電器產品耗電量沒什麼概念;雖然很多人能依電器耗電量多寡排出順序,像吹風機比烤麵包機耗電多,但究竟多多少,大多數的人還是搞不清楚。 \n Example: Most people knew that a laptop computer uses less energy than a desktop. But few knew the lap used one-third the amount. Nearly 20% said that turning off the lights was the biggest thing they could do to save energy. In reality, turning off the lights saves just a small amount of energy compared to things like insulating your house or buying more efficient appliances. \n 舉例:大部分的人知道筆記型電腦比桌上型電腦省電,但很少人知道它的用電量只有桌上型的1/3。約有20%的人認為把燈關掉是最省電的方式,但事實上,比起裝隔熱設備或用省電產品,關燈只能省掉一點點的電而已。 \n “People's perceptions were off by an order of magnitude,” said Shahzeen Attari, one of the study's authors and a fellow at the Columbia's Earth Institute and Center. “Correcting perceptions is critical if people are going to make informed decisions.” \n 多數人對節能的觀念都不正確,沒有注意到用電的數量級。如果節能的正確決定,導正觀念是當前重要的課題。哥倫比亞大學地球研究所研究員Shahzeen Attari說。 \n ◎order of magnitude:數量級,物理學名詞,簡言之是一個估計量。 \n Americans tended to slightly overestimate how much energy small things like lights and laptops use, and greatly underestimate how much is consumed by big items like dishwashers and air conditioners. They also tended to say that curtailment activities - not using the lights, not using the car - had more of an effect than investing in more efficient items. \n 美國人容易高估小型電器產品的用電量,比如燈和筆電,卻大大低估了像是洗碗機和空調等大型電器產品的耗電量。他們以為不開燈、不開車,比投資省電產品更具節能效果。 \n “It's what they can do now, and it's easier to incorporate that without an up front cost,” said Attari. \n 這是每個人都可做的、沒有什麼成本,又很容易融入的省電習慣。Attari說。 \n Also surprising: the study found that people who said they practiced conservation fared worse on the quiz than the public at large. The study has generated some controversy, with some questioning the numbers Attari used to decide what activity saved more energy. She has posted detailed links to the information used in her study, although she conceded that there are lots of assumptions that go into the numbers. \n 研究還有一項新發現,節能測驗時,那些自認為有省電習慣表現反而低於平均水準。但這個研究中,Attari用來判定這些節能行為的數據也有爭議。她已經在網路上貼了一些研究資料的連結,不過她也承認有很多計算是假設性的。 \n A native of Dubai who studied engineering in college, Attari said she is now focused on the intersection of engineering and psychology as a better means of enabling the public to take advantage of scientific advances to curb greenhouse gas emissions. \n 在杜拜出生長大,大學主修工程學的Attari說,她目前主要想利用工程學與心理學,讓大家更能利用科學的進步來減少溫室氣體排放。 \n “We study the engineered system, but we don't study how people interact with it,” she said. She stressed her study isn't meant to suggest people stop doing things like turning off the lights, but rather also look to other areas where there could be even more energy savings. \n “We need both, curtailment and energy efficiency,” she said. \n 「我們研究的是這個建構系統,而非人如何與此系統的互動。」她強調,並非建議大家就不必關燈省電,而是希望也能找出更多有效節省能源的領域。我們兩者都需要:減量,以及提高節能效率。 \n In the Dark- \n 「在黑暗裡」,意思是搞不清楚狀況。這裡用"in the dark"這個成語比喻美國人以為關燈是節能最好的辦法,一暗一亮,相映成趣。 \n ●注意1:如果是不清楚狀況,意思就比較像沒有真的去探討,或更深入的了解。例如文章描述的美國人,他們不是對省電沒概念,有可能是因為沒有嘗試去理解,所以這裡用"in the dark". \n 例:John's dad is in the dark about a lot of things regarding his son. \n John的爸爸對他的很多事都不了解。 \n 這句可以說John的爸爸本身沒去做更多了解他兒子的事,所以對兒子的狀況不清楚;也可以說他爸爸因為有被隱瞞,所以對於他兒子真正的情況不了解。 \n ●注意2:如果是描述刻意不讓對方知道真相,就需要"Keep"這個動詞來描述持續隱瞞的動作,讓對方一直在「黑暗裡」,也就是說,使對方在狀況外,不讓真相曝光。 \n 例:John kept his father in the dark about his drug addiction. \n John對他爸爸隱瞞了他有毒癮的事。 \n ●注意3:除了上面兩個用法之外,比較少用來當問句或否定句,除非是描述「不想要」。 \n 例1:Can you keep my secret in the dark for me? (×) \n 你能幫我保密嗎? \n 例2:I don't want to be kept in the dark anymore, tell me the truth! (○) \n 我不想一直被隱瞞真相了。告訴我事實! \n Up front \n up front有很多意思,是一個很常見、受用的俚語。但也因為它意思太多,常讓人搞混。 \n ●注意1:Up front第一個意思是"in advance"預先,在本文就是這個意思。隨手關燈很簡單,每個人都可以做,又沒有up front cost。不需投資任何成本。 \n 例句: \n I'll be up front with the driver. 我會先付給司機錢。 \n The more you pay up front, the less you'll have to finance. 你先付多一點錢,將來負擔就輕一點。 \n ●注意2:Up front也可以當直率地、坦率地。 \n I wish the salesman had been more up front about it. \n ●注意3:Up front也用來指最前面,用在軍事上,意思是最前線。 \n She got on the bus and picked a seat up front. 她上了公車,找了個最前面的座位。 \n <Window 1001>是世界公民文化中心為金融、科技、貿易、管理等專業人才而打造的線上九宮格英語學習平台。每天只要7分鐘,堅持3個月,就能讓一個「英文只夠用來自我介紹」的上班族,進步到讀得懂Business Week、New York Times;持續9個月,聽得懂CNN、BBC的商業新聞。註冊或試讀請上網:www.window1001.com。

  • 數鈔票可以止痛


     Handling Cash “Better at Killing Pain Than Aspirin”, study claims \n 數鈔票的止痛效果比阿斯匹林等止痛藥物還好,你信不信? \n 美國明尼蘇達大學的研究員,讓一群人在疼痛前數錢,結果發現這些人比之前沒數錢的人感到的痛感較輕。 \n Handling a wad of cash may be as good at killing pain as ibuprofen or aspirin, a new study suggests. \n Researchers at the University of Minnesota carried out a series of studies which revealed those who counted money before taking part in an experiment where they were subjected to low levels of pain felt less discomfort than those who did not. \n 研究指出,數鈔票能帶來自我價值感和自我滿足感,有助於止痛。此前的研究顯示,自我感覺好的人承受疼痛的能力較強。英國每年在非處方止痛藥物上的花費至少5億英鎊,而且數字逐年增加。但科學家仍不明白為什麼有些人對疼痛的感覺比較強。 \n 研究人員讓一組學生數一疊80張100美元的鈔票或80張空白的紙片,並告訴他們這是為了測試他們點鈔熟練程度。 \n 接下來研究人員讓每位志願者把手浸入一碗滾燙的開水中,以觀察他們感到的疼痛程度,以及能夠堅持多久。那些之前數過錢的人感到的疼痛較輕,且堅持得更久。 \n 這個結果證明了,止痛不一定要用止痛藥,也可以透過調控大腦達成止痛效果。 \n It thought that fondling notes and coins helps ward off pain by boosting feelings of self-worth and self-sufficiency. \n Previous studies have shown those with a greater sense of self-worth may be more likely to withstand pain. \n Britain spends at least £500 million a year on over-the-counter painkilling pills and the figure is increasing every year. \n But scientists remain baffled by why some people appear to feel pain more easily than others. \n In the latest study, a group of students were asked to count out a wad of cash consisting of 80 one-hundred dollar bills, or just 80 slips of blank paper. They had been told researchers were simply testing their dexterity in handling the notes. \n Each volunteer was then asked to dip their hands into a bowl of very hot water, to see how painful they found it and how long they could last. \n The results, published in a recent edition of the journal Psychological Science, showed those who had handled money reported less pain and lasted longer. \n The results support other studies highlighting how the brain can be tuned to ward off pain without the use of pills. \n 洛杉磯大學科學研究人員也發現,注視自己心愛的人的照片也能有效緩解疼痛。他們建議,到醫院進行痛苦的身體檢查的人應該帶一張這樣的照片來幫助自己緩解疼痛。 \n 芝加哥Loyola大學所做的測試發現,那些做了膝關節或髖關節置換等大手術的病人只需摸摸寵物就能讓止痛藥的用量減半。 \n A University of Los Angeles team of scientists found just looking at a photograph of a loved one can also be a powerful form of pain relief. \n They recommended anyone visiting hospital for painful tests or examinations should bring a picture to help them cope. \n And patients who have had major surgery, such as a knee or hip replacement, can halve the amount of painkilling medicine they need simply by stroking a pet, according to tests at Loyola University in Chicago. \n Key points: \n 1. Be subject to: \n 在本文中意思是「在…條件下」,be subject to用途很廣,但也因為意思太多,取代性太高,很容易忽略。 \n (1) 以…為條件的:須經…的 \n Our plans are subject to the weather. \n 我們的計畫取決於天氣如何。 \n (2) 易受…的;易患…的 \n My mother is very subject to headaches. \n 我母親動不動就頭痛。 \n Japan is subject to earthquakes. \n 日本常發生地震。 \n The prices for steel are subject to change. \n 鋼材價格隨時可能有變動。 \n (3) 隸屬的;受支配的 \n While in this country you are subject to its laws. \n 你們在這個國家就要受其法律的約束。 \n 2.over-the-counter: (of drugs and medicines) that can be obtained without a prescription(藥品)無需處方可買到的;非處方的 \n 在日常生活中,我們常常提到的「非處方藥」可用over-the-counter來表示,如:over-the-counter drugs(非處方藥),這時,over-the-counter drugs與prescription drugs(處方藥)相對。在金融詞彙裏,over-the-counter可以解釋為"not listed or available on an officially exchange but traded in direct negotiation between buyers and sellers"(不通過交易所,買賣雙方直接進行交易)。"over-the-counter market"也可翻譯為「場外交易市場」,如:over-the-counter stocks(場外交易股票)。 \n 參考網站:www.telegraph.co.uk